澳大利亞調查大學外國干涉 矛頭指向中國-Australia to tackle foreign interference at universities

(quoted from BBC NEWS)

Australia to tackle foreign interference at universities
澳大利亞調查大學外國干涉 矛頭指向中國

(Australia says it needs to deal with foreign interference in its universities ;Image copyright Getty)

Australia is to formally investigate foreign interference in its universities amid rising concerns about Chinese influence on campuses.
擔心中國對其校園的影響,澳大利亞當局將正式調查外國對大學的干預活動

The push follows reports of students and staff “self-censoring” on sensitive political issues such as the pro-democracy protests in Hong Kong.
此前有報道稱,學生和學校員工對香港民主抗議活動等敏感政治問題進行「自我審查」。

註: 自我審查 :Self-censorship
Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one’s own discourse. This is done out of fear of, or deference to, the sensibilities or preferences (actual or perceived) of others and without overt pressure from any specific party or institution of authority. Self-censorship is often practiced by film producers, film directors, publishers, news anchors, journalists, musicians, and other kinds of authors including individuals who use social media.
指特定政權下的媒體機構在向公眾發布訊息前,部分內容已受到媒體內部自己的審查,審查內容主要為:政治性敏感議題。因此,「自我審查」一詞常常也被稱為
政治自我審查,對涉及某些政權的政治相關內容有所顧忌,在迫於無奈與生存需求下而執行。
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-censorship
https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E8%87%AA%E6%88%91%E5%AF%A9%E6%9F%A5

Universities had also increasingly been targeted by state-sponsored cyber attacks, the government said.
澳大利亞政府表示,大學也日益成為有外國政府支持的網絡攻擊的目標。

It announced an intelligence taskforce on Wednesday to combat such threats.
澳大利亞政府已經宣佈建立一個特別情報工作組,以打擊此類威脅。

“Universities must act to protect the valuable information they hold where it is in the national interest to do so,” Education Minister Dan Tehan said in a national address.
澳大利亞教育部長丹·特漢在一次對全國講話中說,各大學必須採取行動,保護它們所掌握的涉及國家利益的寶貴信息

He linked efforts to tackle foreign interference to “broader” efforts to protect free speech and academic freedom on campuses.
他將解決外國干涉的努力與保護校園言論自由學術自由的廣泛努力聯繫起來。

Universities Australia, a representative group, welcomed the announcement but said a “careful balance” was needed.
一個代表澳洲大學的團體澳大利亞大學聯盟(Universities Australia)歡迎政府的這一決定,但表示需要採取謹慎的平衡措施。

“We must continue to safeguard our security without undermining the invaluable asset of our openness,” Chair Prof Deborah Terry said on Wednesday.
該聯盟主席德博拉·特裏教授表示,澳大利亞必須繼續維護其安全,同時不損害其開放性這一寶貴資產。

Why is there concern now?
為什麼澳大利亞現在有顧慮了?


While the government did not name any countries on Wednesday, there have been recent concerns about China’s alleged influence on campuses.

儘管澳大利亞政府沒有點名任何國家,但近年不斷有人擔心中國對澳大利亞校園的影響。

This was highlighted in recent weeks by violent clashes at a number of Australian universities between students supporting the pro-democracy protests in Hong Kong and mainland Chinese students defending their government.
近幾周來,澳大利亞多所大學支持香港民主抗議活動的學生
與捍衛中國政府的中國大陸學生之間發生了暴力衝突


( Student protesters clashed at a pro-Hong Kong demonstration at the University of Queensland in July ;Image copyright PHOEBE FAN )

“We must… encourage an environment where disagreement does not involve verbal attacks or threats,” Mr Tehan said on Wednesday.
特漢部長表示,必須鼓勵保護言論自由的環境,意見分歧不能涉及言辭攻擊或威脅

“The sense that some students and staff at universities are self-censoring out of fear they will be shouted down or condemned for expressing sincerely held views and beliefs, or for challenging widely accepted ideas, should concern all of us,” he said.
他說,一些大學學生和學校員工害怕自己因為表達真誠持有的觀點和信念,或對廣泛接受的觀點提出挑戰,而被人叫罵,因此(政治)自我審查。這種情況讓我們所有人感到擔憂。

 

Tensions have also arisen from previous reports of Chinese students aggressively disputing the curriculum in Australian classrooms.
此前還有報道稱,中國學生在澳大利亞課堂上對教程(課程)進行咄咄逼人的爭議,也加劇了緊張局勢。

Australia’s higher education sector has been criticised for being heavily financially reliant on international enrolments.
Chinese students account for close to a third of international students in Australia.

澳大利亞的高等教育部門一直被批評為嚴重依賴招收國際學生。
中國學生已經佔澳大利亞留學生的近1/3之多。

What are the aims of the taskforce?
特別工作組的目標是什麼?

The government says its University Foreign Interference Taskforce – made up of intelligence agencies, education bureaucrats and university leaders – is aimed at strengthening the cyber defences of universities.
澳大利亞政府表示,由情報機構、教育官員和大學領導組成的大學對外干預特別情報工作組旨在加強大學的網絡防禦

Just last month, the Australian National University confirmed it had been the target of a massive data hack, where the personal information of 200,000 students and staff was stolen.
上個月,澳大利亞國立大學證實,它曾成為黑客攻擊大規模數據的目標,20萬學生和大學員工的個人信息被盜。

“According to the latest advice from the Australian Cyber Security Centre, the targeting of Australian universities continues to increase,” Mr Tehan said on Wednesday.

特漢部長表示,根據澳大利亞網絡安全中心的最新建議警告,針對澳大利亞大學的攻擊仍在繼續增加。

He said the group would also develop safeguards to help universities protect their research and intellectual property, and to make foreign academic collaborations more “transparent”.
他說,該小組還將制定保障措施,幫助大學保護其研究成果和知識產權,並使外國學術合作更加透明

What other actions have been taken?
澳大利亞還採取了哪些其它措施?

Australia introduced new laws in 2017 that require foreign organisations to identify their state connections publicly on a government register.
澳大利亞於 2017 年出台(=發表)了新的法律,要求外國組織機構在政府登記冊上公開其與來源國政府的關係。

The government is investigating the role of Confucius Institutes – Chinese language and cultural centres funded by the Chinese government- which are present on many campuses but not presently registered.
澳大利亞政府正在調查孔子學院的角色。很多澳大利亞大學裏有這種由中國政府資助的漢語和文化中心孔子學院,但目前尚未正式登記註冊過。

(Chinese President Xi Jinping at the opening of the Confucius Institute at Melbourne’s RMIT University in 2010;Image copyright Getty )

Concerns about the institutes also prompted the New South Wales state government last week to cancel the organisation’s contracts to teach Chinese language programmes in its public schools. The decision has been criticised as “hysteria” by Chinese state media.
澳洲新南威爾士州政府出於對孔子學院的擔憂,近期取消了該組織在公立學校教授漢語課程的合同。中國官方媒體則批評此舉為「歇斯底里」。

Two Australian universities have also announced reviews of its research and funding collaborations, following reports its researchers may have unwittingly collaborated with a Chinese-state owned military technology company accused of human rights abuses
另外,澳大利亞兩所大學也宣佈對其研究和資助合作項目進行審查。此前有報道稱,其研究人員可能無意中與一家被控侵犯人權的中國國有軍事技術公司合作。

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